AC Alternating Current
ACTS Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (NASA program)
ACTS Advanced Communications Technology System (EC program)
ACM Adaptive Coding & Modulation
ACU Antenna Control Unit
AD Adjunct
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADM Add/drop multiplexing
ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line or B-ADSL Broadband-ADSL
AFC Automatic Frequency Control
AIN Advanced Intelligent Network, USA term for IN
Aloha term used to describe contentious access to a channel (see slotted Aloha)
AMPS Advanced Mobile Phones System, US analogue cellular
ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations
AT Attention
AT&T American Telephone & Telegraph Co.
ATC Alarm Traffic Controller
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Attenuation the loss/absorption of radio frequency signals in the earth’s atmosphere
AUI Autonomous Unit Interface
B-ISDN Broadband ISDN
BER Bit Error Rate
Bird slang term for a satellite
BOD Bandwidth on Demand
BOT Build Operate Transfer, associated with a fixed term licence from an established operator (see also BTO)
BPS Bits Per Second
BSS Broadcast Satellite Services
BT British Telecom
BTO Build Transfer Operate (see also BOT)
BW Bandwidth
C&W Cable & Wireless
C/N Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
C-band 6/4 GHz (UL/DL) frequency band used generally for satellite links in Asia, Africa and Latin America due to its resilience to rain fade by comparison with Ku-band Can have TI problems in developed countries..
CA Carrier Access
CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate
CANARIE Canadian Network for the Advancement of Research, Industry and Education
CAP Competitive Access Provider
CATV Cable Television
CB Call Baring
CBDS Connectionless Broadband Data Service (Europe’s answer to SMDS)
CCS Complete Customer Satisfaction
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access (either an access technique and/or a cellular system)
CDR Call Detail Records
CE Control Elements
CELP Code Excited Linear Predictive
CEPT Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications
CFDM Companded Frequency Division Modulation
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
Cisco Router Internet router
CITEL The Organisation of Inter-American States (OAS) and its department the Inter-American Telecommunication Commission
CLASS Custom Local Area Signalling Services
CLI Calling Line Identity
CME Compressed Multiplication Equipment
CO Central Office/local Exchange
Commbox Chooses the cheapest connection. Least Cost Routing
Comtech modem Internet modem.
CPE Customer Premises Equipment
CPM Calls Per Minute
CPU Central Processing Unit
CSC Command Signal and Control, used in mesh networks to request connection between remote terminals.
CW Call Waiting
Cw/ccw Clockwise/counter clockwise
DAMA Demand Assigned Multiple Access, satellite access scheme, usually for telephony
DARPA Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (US)
DATE Duly Authorised Telecommunications Entity
dB Decibel
dBm Decibels referenced to milliwatts
dBW Decibels referenced to Watts
DC Direct Current
DCE Data Communications Equipment
DCME Digital Compressed Multiplication Equipment
DCMS Digital Circuit Multiplication System
DCS 1800 Digital Cellular System, GSM variant at 1800 MHz
DCU Dial up Data Channel Unit
DECT Digital European Cordless Telephone/Telecommunication
DID Direct Inward Dialing
DP Data Processing
DP Distribution Point, final flexibility point in access network, 100m from subscriber
DPI Dots per Inch
DS Digital Signal
DS0 Digital Service, Level 0, 64kbps
DS1 Digital Service, Level 1, 1.544 Mbps
DSI Digital Speech Interpolation
DSS Direct Satellite Services
DTE Data Terminal Equipment
DTH Direct-to-Home, usually satellite television broadcasting
DTMF Dual Tone Multiple Frequency
E&M Ear & Mouth
E1 2.048 Mbps (Europe orientated)
Eb/No Energy per Bit to Noise ratio
EC Enhanced Capacity
EC European Commission
ECTRA European Committee for Telecommunications Regulatory Affairs
EDI Electronic Data Interchange
EII European Information Infrastructure
EIRP Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power, a term used to describe and reference the power a satellite is able to project to a point on the earth’s surface.
EPR Engineering Progress Report
ESCON Enterprise Systems Connection
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
EU European Union
FCS Fibre Channel Standard
FDDI Fibre Distributed Data Interface
FDM Frequency Division Modulation
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
FEC Forward Error Correction
FEP Front End Processor
FITL Fibre in the (local) Loop
FLAG Fibre Link Around the Globe
FNCS Foreign National Control System
FOB Free On Board
FOC Final Operating Configuration
Footprint the area on the earth covered by a particular satellite’s beam
FOS Follow on Satellite, Intelsat designation
FOW Forward OrderWire
FPLMTS Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Systems
FR Frame Relay
FRAD Frame Relay Access Device
FRS Frame Relay Service
FSS Fixed Satellite Service
FT France Telecom
FT1 Fractional T1
FTAM File Transfer and Access Management
FTP File Transfer Protocol
FTTC Fibre to the Curb (Kerb), linked to VDSL in deployment
FTTH Fibre to the Home
FXO Foreign Exchange Office
FXS Foreign Exchange Service
G/T Gain to System Noise Temperature Ratio
Gbit Gigabit
GE General Electric Corporation
GEO Geostationary Earth Orbit
GESS General Electric Satellite Services
GHz Gigahertz (Billion hertz)
GI General Instruments Corporation
GII Global Information Infrastructure
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GSM Global System for Mobile communications, originally: Groupe Spéciale Mobile
GSO Geostationary Earth Orbit
GTF Global Traffic Forecast (Intelsat)
GTM Global Traffic Meeting (Intelsat)
GTS General TeleSystems Group
GW Gateway
H-pole Horizontal pole
HDSL High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line
HFC Hybrid Fibre Co-ax
HNS Hughes Network Systems
HPA High Power Amplifier
HPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HSSI High Speed Serial Interface
HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Hub used to describe central station in a star network. The central point of a star network is a major antenna, usually 6 metres or more, but sometimes less. The hub also houses the network management system, the modulation equipment and the main system processors and interfaces with the customer’s FEP.
HVS Hospitality Voice Services
Hz Hertz
I/B Inbound/Outroute (also known as the return link), from remote terminal to hub
IBS Intelsat Business Service
IBT International Business Traveller
I-Direct The iDirect Intelligent Platform™ reduces bandwidth by dynamically allocating capacity to maritime vessels based on real-time demand using a centralized pool of shared bandwidth.
IDB International Development Bank
IDL Interactive Distance Learning
IDR Intermediate Data Rate
IDU Indoor Unit, the box which sits in the user’s office and provides the interfaces and processing for the VSAT. Every manufacturer has a different term for the IDU, but they all mean the same thing.
IEC Inter Exchange Carrier
IEEE Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IF Intermediate Frequency
IN Intelligent Network
INAP Intelligent Network Application Part Protocol
Inbound see I/B
Inroute see I/B
IOC Initial Operating Configuration
IP Intelligent Peripheral, IN block
IP Internet Protocol
IPCU DAMA IP Channel Unit
IPMI Internet Protocol Multicasting Initiative
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
IPSL Integrated IP Software License
IRD Integrated Receiver/Decoder
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO International Standards Organisation
ISOC the Internet Society
ISP Internet Service Provider
IT Information Technology (usually refers to computers and the computing environment)
ITU-T ITU Telecommunications standards body
ITU International Telecommunications Union
IVPN International VPN
IXC Inter-Exchange Carrier (US term)
JDS-HR Japan Digital Services – Half Rate
k kilo (thousand)
Ka-band 20/30 GHz (UL/DL) planned for deployment by several satellite systems in the late 1990s, early 2000 due to increased bandwidth and propensity towards smaller antennas.
kBPS kilo Bits Per Second
kft Kilofeet (USA cable length measurement)
kHz kilohertz (thousand hertz)
Ku-band 10/14 GHz (UL/DL) frequency band, used generally for satellite links in Europe and North America due to its susceptibility to rain fade during heavy rain and problems of TI in many developed countries.
kW kilowatt
L-band 1.5/2.5 GHz (UL/DL) frequency band, primarily used for mobile satellite links (traditionally Inmarsat, but more recently the satellite PCN systems planned for LEO and MEO operation).
LA Latin America
LAN Local Area Network (span < 10km)
LCR Least Cost Routing
LEC Local Exchange Carrier, US term
LEO Low Earth Orbit
Link Budget a calculation based on satellite power, earth station power and antenna size which describes the parameters of a satellite communications link.
LMDS Local Multipoint Distribution Service
LNA Low Noise Amplifier
LNB Low Noise Block downconverter RF receiver module for a receive-only terminal (data or TVRO).
MAN Metropolitan Area Network (span approximately 50km)
MAP Mobile Application Part Protocol
Mbps Million Bits Per Second
MCPC Multiple Channels Per Carrier
MCS Master Control Station the main controller, usually for a mesh network. The master controls the network, setting up and tearing down links between VSATs as required.
MEO Medium Earth Orbit
Mesh network any network station able to communicate with any other network station.
MHz Megahertz (million hertz)
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
MiTTs Minutes of Telecommunications Traffic
MNC Multi-National Company
Modem Modulator/Demodulator
MPEG Motion Pictures Experts Group
MPS Multiple Priority System
MSS Mobile Satellite Service
NAP Network Access Point
NASA National Aeronautical and Space Agency (US)
NCB National Computer Board
NCC Network Control Computer
NCCC Network Control Coordination Channel
NCS National Control System
NCT Network Control Terminal
NEC Nippon Electronic Corporation
NGSO Non-Geostationary Earth Orbit, used as a general descriptive for LEO and MEO systems.
NGW National Gateway
NII National Information Infrastructure (for the USA, see also GII and EII)
NISC National Information Services Council
NIU Network Interface Unit
NMS Network Management System, monitors and controls the remote stations (VSATs) in a network, performs traffic analysis and trouble shooting.
NOC Network Operations Center
NSF National Science Foundation (US)
NTE Network Terminating Equipment
O&M Operations and Management
O/B Outbound/Outroute, from hub to remote terminal
OA&M Operations Administration and Management
OC Optical Carrier
ODU Outdoor Unit, the transmission and reception electronic package mounted on the antenna and connected to the IDU by an IFL cable. This can also be known as the “radio” or the “RF package”.
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
ONP Open Network Provision
OQPSK Offset Quaternary Phase-shift Keying
Oribital Slot longitude position above the equator at which a satellite is located
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
Outbound see O/B
Outroute see O/B
P6 Pentium 6
PA Power Amplifier
PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange
PAMA Permanent Assignment Multiple Access
PAS PanAmSat
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PC Personal Computer
PCCA Pacific Century Corporate Access
PCG Pacific Century Group
PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PCN Personal Communications Network
PCP Primary Cross-connection Point, street cabinet/flexibility point
PCS Personal Communication System
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PES Personal Earth Station, Hughes VSAT product
PIN Personal Identification Number
PLDT Philippines Long Distance Telephone Company
PN Pseudo Noise
POC Point Of Contact
POM Project Office Manager
POP/PoP Point of Presence, usually referring to an Internet service provider/access point
POR Pacific Ocean Region
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service
PRB Project Review Board
PRI Primary Rate Interface
PRTG Peassler, Reporting, Traffic, Grapher. Monitoring tool.
PSC Project Steering Committee
PSN Public Switched Network
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PT Point
PTO Private Telecommunications Operator
PTS Per Trunk Signaling
PTT Posts, Telegraph and Telephone company (usually a government monopoly operator)
PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit, as opposed to Switched Virtual Circuit
Pwr Power
QoS Quality of Service
QPM Quarterly Progress Meeting
QPR Quarterly Progress Report
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, a modulation scheme
R&D Research and Design
RAITN Regional Arab Information Technology Network
RAM Random Access Memory
RASCOM Regional African Satellite Communications Organisation
RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company
Remote or remote terminal, used to describe a VSAT installation
RF Radio Frequency
RFC Request for Comments
RFFP Request For Final Proposals
RFI Request for Information
RFP Request for Proposal
RFT Radio Frequency Transmitter used to describe large antennas with associated receive/transmit equipment
RJ-11 Registered Jack –11
ROM Read Only Memory
ROW Return OrderWire
RS232 Recommended Standard –232
RSVP Repondez s’il vous plait (please reply)
Rx Receive
S-A Scientific-Atlanta
S-band 4/2 GHz (UL/DL) frequency band
SATCOM Satellite Communications
Satellite Capacity the resources required for a link between two terminals, usually calculated in satellite power versus satellite bandwidth
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part, part of SS7
SCE Service Creation Environment, IN block
SCEP Service Creation Environment Point, IN block
SCF Service Control Function, IN block
SCP Service Control Point, IN block
SCPC Single Channel per Carrier, satellite dedicated circuit, the satellite equivalent to a leased line. Actually an SCPC link comprises two clear channels, usually running at rates from 9.6 kbps to 2 Mbps, but the rate could be far higher.
SDA System Design Authority
SDF Service Data Function, IN block
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, follow on from PDH
SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control
SDMA Space Domain Multiple Access
SDP Service Data Point, IN block
SIB Service Independent Building Block, IN block
SITA Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautique
Slotted Aloha term used to describe time divided contentious access to a channel, also known as TDMA
SMAP Service Management Access Point, IN block
SMCS Short Message Service Center
SMDS Switched Multimegabit Data Service, connectionless data service
SME Short Message Entity
SME Small to Medium sized Enterprise
SMP Service Management Point, IN block
SMS Service Management System, IN block
SMS Short Message Service
SMSC Short Message Service Centre, part of GSM messaging system
SN Service Node, IN block
SNA Systems Network Architecture
SNG Satellite News Gathering
SoHo Small office/Home office
SONET Synchronous Optical Network, US equivalent to SDH
Space Segment technically refers to the satellite, but often used to describe satellite capacity
SPCN Satellite Personal Communications Network
SRC/DST Source/Destination
SRF Specialised Resource Function, IN block
SS/TDMA Satellite Switched Time Division Multiple Access, Intelsat service
SS5 Signaling System 5
SS7 Signalling System 7, supported by the ITU-T, also known as CCITT 7
SSF Service Switching Function, IN block
SSP Service Switching Point, IN block
SSPA Solid State Power Amplifier
ST Subscriber Terminals
ST1 Switched T1
Star network all communications between remote stations required to transit a central hub.
STM Satellite Technology Management, Inc.
STM Synchronous Transfer Mode, or
STM Synchronous Transfer Module
T1 1.544 Mbps (US orientated)
TACS Total Access Communications Systems (Analogue)
TAM Total Available Market
TAS Telecommunications Authority of Singapore
TBD To Be Determined
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TDM Time Division Multiplexing, a satellite channel divided into time slots for transmission from a central hub to a group of VSAT sites. Individual time slots can be addressed specifically to one or more VSATs. Usually used as the access protocol for the outbound channel (hub to VSAT) of a VSAT system.
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access, a contentious access satellite channel which is divided into time slots for sharing between VSATs at different sites usually for connection to a hub. Usually used as the access protocol for the inbound channel (VSAT to hub) of a VSAT system.
TES Telephony Earth Station (Hughes SCPC DAMA product)
TI Terrestrial Interference
TMC Terminal Monitor and Control
TQM Total Quality Management
Transponder a defined amount of bandwidth supported by various components on the satellite. Measured in increments of MHz (usually 36, 48 or 72).
TRM Technical Review Meeting
TVRO Television Receive Only earth station
Tx Transmit
UDCAST Increase the Wan-performance tremendously
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UEM Universal Equipment Modules
UIC User Interface Client
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UNI User Network Interface
UPN Universal Personal Number
UPT Universal Personal Telecommunications
V-band 50/40 GHz
V-pole Vertical-pole
VAC Voltage Alternating Current
VADSL or VDSL Very high speed (Asymmetric) Digital Subscriber Line
VEC Voice Equivalent Circuit
VFCU Voice/FAX Channel Unit
VM Voice Mail
VME Versa Module Eurocard
VMM Voice / Modem Module
VMS Viper, Management, System. Operating system for the connection.
VPN Virtual Private Network
VPS Voice Processing System
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal, business premises earth stations, term used to describe almost any direct to business satellite earth station, one-way or interactive. Typically however, it is used for data systems (interactive less than 2.4 metre antennas and one-way less than 1.8 metre antennas). Can use TDM/TDMA, SCPC or DAMA access schemes.
VSSP Virtual Service Switching Point
W Watt
WAN Wide Area Network, covers LANs and MANs, data limited to available rates
WBS Work Breakdown Structure
WC Watts per channel
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing, used to increase capacity on fibre
WLL/WiLL Wireless Local Loop, WiLL is also Motorola’s WLL product line name
WTI When accessing the System by an external control switch (WTI) in connection with the maintenance and support services
WTO World Trade Organisation
WWW World Wide Web
X-band 6-10 GHz (UL/DL) frequency band, military use.
xDSL term used to describe all types of Digital Subscriber Line technologies (ADSL/VDSLHDSL etc.)